Migration, matrimony and you may personal flexibility: Women in Sweden 1880–1900

Migration, matrimony and you may personal flexibility: Women in Sweden 1880–1900


We studies the new intergenerational societal flexibility of women because of the considering exactly how migration is actually of the socioeconomic relationship mobility using complete-amount census study having Sweden. The fresh censuses 1880–1900 was basically connected at personal height, helping us to realize nearly one hundred,one hundred thousand girls using their adult the home of their brand new relationship home. Relationships business imbalances were not an important push grounds to own migration but we find an effective relationship ranging from migration length and you can marriage outcomes, both in terms of complete wedding probabilities along with terms of companion selection by the SES. These types of abilities highlight the importance of migration getting women’s intergenerational public versatility through the industrialization.


The analysis of intergenerational personal mobility might have been a center motif inside financial and you will public records for a long period, nevertheless has actually attained restored desire in recent times no less than partially because of the uncovering of brand new research supplies and you can the brand new types of studies linkage (e.g., Clark, 2014, A lot of time and you may Ferrie, 2013, Knigge et al., 2014, Lindahl et al., 2015, Dribe and you will Helgertz, 2016). Most studies look at the intergenerational indication regarding occupational reputation, class otherwise earnings of the comparing fathers and you will sons or, now, grandfathers, dads, and you can grandsons. Constantly, merely men are considered (present exceptions is Jantti mais aussi al., 2006, Hellerstein and you will Morrill, 2011, Olivetti and you can Paserman, 2015), since historically it absolutely was regular for females to leave the labor push through to wedding or perhaps simply work part-time supplementing the fresh husband’s earnings when needed. This often kept girls instead of a subscribed community when you look at the censuses and you can other administrative documents (Goldin, 1995, Stanfors, 2014, Stanfors and Goldscheider, 2017). Consequently we really do not discover much concerning the criteria shaping public mobility and socioeconomic attainment for ladies in past times.

Within the historic contexts, relationships and you may companion choice constituted a significant route to socioeconomic attainment as well as very own community and you will income. Obviously, this was particularly the circumstances for ladies, for their number 1 role as homemakers. A micro-peak study of a residential area inside the southern area Sweden, for example, revealed that partner possibilities with regards to personal source is actually closely linked to societal attainment and freedom (Dribe and Lundh, 2009, Dribe and Lundh, 2010), which makes this new workings of your own relationship industry a vital grounds to possess understanding the reproduction away from socioeconomic condition (SES) previously. Migration might have been an important factor in finding suitable mate, thanks to an expanding of your relationships sector and you can a better choose a partner which have desirable attributes (Choi and ). Such as this, migration has been an essential automobile to own public versatility, besides of the creating money otherwise work-related freedom and in addition courtesy the marriage sector.

The point would be to data the necessity of internal migration having wedding and you may companion choice for female, playing with complete amount census research getting Sweden. Though it doesn’t level women’s own work-related updates, it offers a relevant and you will very important measure of the SES due to the fact it actually was mainly discussed at that time from the the husbands’ condition. And that, it includes us worthwhile information to the procedure for intergenerational societal mobility for women at the beginning of commercial area. Brand new censuses 1880, 1890, and you will 1900 was indeed connected on personal height, which enables us to realize folks from its adult the home of their brand new relationship home. You will find details about SES away from career of your own father and partner along with host to beginning and set out of house. Concurrently, there can be details about house framework and a range of neighborhood-height socioeconomic and you will market indicators. We focus extra attention on the organization ranging from migration as well as other wedding consequences: overall marriage propensities and you can spouse alternatives of the SES. Basic, we get acquainted with new association involving the build of one’s relationship sector, because the shown by the regional sex ratio, together with probability of migration. Following, i study brand new association between migration and you may wedding effects. About studies, we employ sis repaired-outcomes designs so you’re able to make up household members-peak endogeneity about link between migration and you will matrimony. The performance show no relationship within regional marriage business and you can women’s migration conclusion but an extremely strong association between migration, on one-hand, and you will total relationships probabilities and partner SES on the other. It connection is even clearly obvious during the a sister fixed-effects model. Removed with her, all of our conclusions advise that migration played a robust role into the women’s intergenerational public versatility in the development stage out of industrialization from inside the Sweden.

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